In this post you will learn how solar water pumps work. Firstly, solar modules produce DC (direct current) power when the sun shines and DC solar water pumps have a DC motor. This enables DC motors to run straight from power supplied by a solar array. An inverter is not needed to convert DC to AC power, but a controller is needed.
Secondly, it is important to not that batteries are not needed in a solar water pump system. The motor runs during the day when the sun is shining. A controller with MPPT functionality ensures optimal harvesting of solar power. The controller also controls the speed at which the motor turns and determines the rate at which water is pumped. The controller also features dry-run protection that ensures the pump stops when the well is empty.
Lastly, the DC motor is connected to a helical rotor. This rotor pushes out the water into the pipeline. System sizing is a very important aspect of learning how solar water pumps work. A correctly sized system pumps water through the pipeline to the destination point with ease (usually a water tank). A correct sizing will also ensure that this is done in a 4 to 6 hour time period. Cedar Solar has developed solar pump software. Our software determines pump motor and panel array size for any borehole. The software takes the borehole specs, water availability, pipeline friction and sun hours in the area into consideration. This is the most accurate manner to calculate which solar water pump will perform best.
This YouTube video shows a demo of a solar water pump in a transparent well simulator to make the operation of the pump easier to understand how solar water pumps work.